The Different Types of Foot Fungus: Prevention and Treatment

When thinking about the health of our feet, we rarely consider the diversity of threats that loom over them, particularly the types of foot fungus. These tiny enemies, although often ignored, can dramatically affect our quality of life.


In this article, we will dive into the world of foot fungi, examining how these insidious invaders take over our feet and how we can not only treat them but also prevent their occurrence.



What are foot fungi?

Foot fungi, medically known as tinea pedis or athlete’s foot, are skin infections mainly caused by a group of fungi called dermatophytes. These organisms thrive in warm, moist environments, such as those found between the toes and on the soles of the feet, especially in those who are frequently in contact with wet floors or who use closed shoes for extended periods.



Types of foot fungus you should know

There are several types of foot fungus that can cause infections in this area, and knowing them is crucial for an effective diagnosis and treatment. Below, we present the most frequent types:


  • Trichophyton rubrum: This is the most common pathogen of athlete’s foot, characterized by causing chronic and recurrent infections. It often manifests with scaly and red skin between the toes and can spread to the sole and sides of the foot.


  • Candida albicans: This fungus is known for causing skin and nail infections, known as candidiasis. On the feet, it can affect the interdigital areas and nails, causing redness, inflammation, and pain.


  • Onychomycosis: This term refers to fungal infections of the nails, which are commonly caused by the same fungus as athlete’s foot. Onychomycosis is characterized by thickening, discoloration, and crumbling of the nail and can be quite resistant to treatment.


  • Microsporum species: Although it is more common in infections of the scalp and skin, some species like Microsporum canis can also affect the feet, causing scaly and itchy lesions on the skin. 
  • Scopulariopsis: It is another type of foot fungus, less common, which can be responsible for nail infections, leading to changes in their color and texture. It is not as aggressive as other fungi but requires treatment due to its tendency to persist.



Type of foot fungus: Main causes

Foot fungus infections, commonly caused by a type of fungus known as dermatophytes, are conditions that can affect people of all ages and lifestyles. These microorganisms are particularly attracted to warm and humid environments, making them prevalent in places like public showers, locker rooms, and swimming pools. Excessive sweating of the feet and prolonged use of closed shoes create the perfect environment for their growth and reproduction.



Another relevant factor is personal hygiene. Inadequate cleaning of the feet can increase the risk of infection. Likewise, sharing towels, shoes, or pedicure utensils that are not properly sterilized can facilitate the transmission of fungi. In addition, minor injuries to the skin or nails, such as cuts or abrasions, can be gateways for pathogens.


It is important to note that certain health conditions, such as diabetes or circulatory disorders, can decrease the body’s ability to fight fungal infections. Therefore, people with these conditions should take additional precautions to avoid contagion or any other type of foot fungus.



What are the treatments for foot fungus?

  • Topical antifungals: These are applied directly to the affected area and can come in the form of creams, sprays, powders, or solutions. Common active ingredients include clotrimazole, miconazole, and terbinafine.


  • Hygiene measures: It is crucial to keep the feet clean and dry, as fungi thrive in moist and warm environments. Recommendations include:

           – Dry feet well after showering, especially between the toes.

           – Use moisture-absorbing socks and change them frequently if they get wet.

           – Avoid sharing towels and footwear.


  • Podiatric debridement: A podiatrist can perform professional removal of infected skin and nails affected by fungus, which not only reduces the amount of fungus present but also allows topical treatments to be more effective by more easily reaching the lower layers of the skin.


  • Nail surgery: In extreme cases where the fungal infection is severe and does not respond to other treatments, surgery to remove the affected nail may be considered, allowing a new healthy nail to grow in its place.
  • Laser therapy: Some podiatric clinics offer laser therapy to treat foot nail fungus. This technique uses high-power lasers to selectively heat and destroy the fungi without damaging the surrounding tissue.



In summary, knowing the different types of foot fungus is crucial for preventing infections and promoting optimal foot health. From keeping feet dry and clean to using appropriate footwear in public moist areas, preventive measures are simple but effective. If you are already dealing with an infection, remember that the proper treatment depends on the specific type of fungus. Always consult with a healthcare professional for the correct diagnosis and treatment.


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